Between 2000 and 2011, the number of students enrolled in higher education institutions doubled. According to a recent study, this increase should reduce the probability of a middle-income slowdown. The stakes for reform are high, given the key role the school system must play in facilitating the country’s transition to a more knowledge-oriented economy. With primary school enrolment up from 95.3% in 2000 to 98.4% in 2010, the republic has shown that it is on track to meet the UN Millennium Development Goal of universal enrolment by 2015. While enrolment is up, ensuring equal regional access will be more difficult to achieve. This is not lost on the current administration, which has boosted school investment in underserved areas.
This chapter contains interviews with Umran Inan, President of Koç University, and Yücel Altunbaşak, President, Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey.