After achieving a region-leading economic recovery in the decade since political stability was established, future growth and industrialisation strategy will continue to be shaped by the National Development Plan 2021-25, which constitutes a holistic approach to achieving emerging market status and meaningful poverty reduction by 2030.
After weathering a series of global and regional challenges in recent years, Bahrain is emerging from the Covid-19 pandemic with strong growth, rising government revenue and a new plan for the future economy. As energy and tourism earnings recover, the kingdom aims to generate sustainable long-term growth opportunities through new sector strategies and transformational infrastructure projects.
Located at the geographic centre of the MENA region, Egypt has a well-documented history that has seen it accumulate knowledge and wealth over millennia. Egypt proved resilient during the Covid-19 pandemic: it was the only country in the MENA region to record positive GDP growth in 2020. Its economy has been widely driven by the execution of Egypt Vision 2030. This plan notably aims to increase annual GDP to 12% in 2030.
Qatar is leveraging its resources to become a knowledge-based, diversified economy fuelled by a dynamic private sector. As such, the country is investing in strategic areas such as agriculture, services, and research and development to further move the economy away from its dependence on hydrocarbons and attract greater foreign direct investment.
As Africa’s largest gold miner and the world’s second-largest cocoa producer, Ghana has witnessed steady growth in recent years. While the country was impacted by the Covid-19 pandemic, it navigated the crisis better than many of its income-level peers, in large part thanks to measures aimed at boosting public revenue. Ghana aims to improve its fiscal deficit in 2022 to 7.4% of GDP.
With a population of over 200m, Nigeria is a large and diversified economy, despite the government’s reliance on oil and gas revenue. While the Covid-19 pandemic and subsequent oil price crash caused a contraction in economic growth in 2020, it also led to rapid digitalisation across commerce, education and communication. This shift is expected to put Nigeria in a favourable position for recovery in the medium term.