Hydrocarbons are not the only underground resource to yield billions of dollars of profit in Saudi Arabia. The mining of metallic ores, phosphates, bauxite and construction materials is an area of growth that the government hopes will become the third pillar of the economy, after oil and petrochemicals. Indeed, Saudi Arabia encompasses geologically diverse areas that contain a wealth of resources, including some of the world’s largest ore deposits. Furthermore, in recent years the Kingdom has made fundamental changes to its business climate for the sector, while the emergence of a new railway infrastructure should further increase investor interest. This chapter includes an interview with Sultan J Shawli, Deputy Minister for Mineral Resources.