This chapter includes the following articles.
The Philippines, an archipelago of 7107 islands in the western Pacific Ocean, has a complex history of human habitation and imperial conquest. Three centuries of Spanish occupation left their impression on the country’s food, language, and religion, with the population now over 90% Roman Catholic. US influence dominated in the 20th century, thanks to several decades of US control, and English and Tagalog are now co-equal national languages. The volcanic origins of the Philippines’ islands is responsible for the country’s vast deposits of nickel, cobalt, silver, gold, salt, and copper, exports of which are important contributors to economic growth.