Papua New Guinea is a vast archipelago, of which the main island – shared with Indonesia – forms the largest tropical island on Earth. Known for its unique flora and fauna, the country is famous for its environmental variety. However, with more than 850 languages spoken within its borders, it is also considered one of the most culturally diverse nations in the world. Enjoying heterogeneous landscapes and cultures, PNG is seen as a frontier market in economic terms. Hydrocarbons and mining are the cornerstones of production, thus there is significant scope for the development of nearly all other sectors. Agriculture and tourism are seen as prime engines for diversification, offering the potential to generate foreign exchange and employment. This chapter contains a viewpoint from Prime Minister James Marape.