This chapter includes the following articles.
Egypt gained independence in 1922 with the end of the British protectorate, but it has operated as a presidential republic since the 1952 revolution. President Abdel Fattah El Sisi is the current leader and has served since June 2014, while the current prime minister and head of government in office since June 2018 is Mostafa Madbouly. The country’s economy has struggled since the 2011 revolution and although economic growth has improved since, many challenges remain. A number of significant steps are being taken to improve economic order and stability in the country, such as to improve public finances, reduce the size of the state and to make the investment environment more attractive. Moreover, Egypt has recently oriented its focus towards increasing its investments across Africa and to boost trade with its African partners. The country has relied heavily on the US for aid and support in the past but is now build¬ing a broader network of international partnerships, including with Russia and China, both of which have entered African markets aggressively during the past decade and have continued to strengthen ties with Egypt through investments in several mega-projects. This chapter contains an interview with Abdel Fattah El Sisi, President of Egypt; a viewpoint from Christine Lagarde, Managing Director, IMF; and an interview with Jeffrey Donaldson, UK Trade Envoy to Egypt.