Mongolia Transport

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While a significant nomadic population still pushes its herds across the steppe, young adults in Ulaanbaatar use fibre-optic networks to access the internet. Heir to the legacy of Chinggis Khan, Mongolia is fast emerging as a land rich with economic potential – a country that is seeking growth while also working to preserve its unique national culture. 

Chapter | Transport & Logistics from The Report: Mongolia 2013

Its sparse population, landlocked location and extreme climate make developing Mongolia’s transportation and logistics infrastructure a challenge. The government is tapping into international markets to address its transportation and infrastructure issues, and in late November 2012 the country raised $1.5bn in a two-part bond offering. Diverse efforts are under way to improve transportation and...
New rail links with Russia and China and a planned overhaul of the road network underline progress in Mongolia’s plans to use the recent surge in resource growth to improve infrastructure and transport. However, there are concerns that political wrangling could delay the implementation of ambitious projects.

Given Mongolia’s large territory and the natural barriers that cross it, along with a low density of road and railway, air transport has provided a vital link within the country ever since civil aviation began in 1946.

For many years Mongolia was largely inaccessible by rail, but in 1947 work began on the Trans-Mongolia line, a southern spur of the famous Trans-Siberian railway, connecting Europe with the Pacific. By 1955, the line had been completed, running 2215 km from the Russian to the Chinese border, via the capital, Ulaanbaatar. Add to this two earlier...

As a large, landlocked country bordering only two others – Russia and China – Mongolia depends on its land and air transport systems to get goods and services to market. Economic development has also meant the country is undergoing rapid urbanisation, placing increasing pressure on its urban transport infrastructure, while boosting a need for better...

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