This chapter includes the following articles.
For a country with three Andean mountain chains and a history of gold and silver production, mining has remained a relatively small contributor to the modern Colombian economy. Between 2012 and 2015 the sector contributed around 2% to GDP and 20% of exports, with the vast majority coming from two giant coal projects: the Cerrejón mine in La Guajira department and La Loma mine in César department. Between 2013 and 2016 the sector experienced a slump as low commodity prices and bureaucratic obstacles saw exploration and development dry up. However, in 2017 stronger global coal and gold prices, the successful construction of a new gold mine and the licensing of three others signal that the country could be on the cusp of a new phase in the industry’s development.